Let's see a simplified workflow as an example, starting from development up to the real build automation. Get the latest copy of the codebase. There are two possibilities here: if it's the first time it's accessed, one needs to "download" it.
Using Git, this is achieved with the git clone command, that will copy the remote codebase locally. Alternatively, if the codebase is already present locally, it just needs to be synchronized with the remote repository, and you may do that e. In Version Control Systems, there's a dedicated branch pointing to the latest stable version of the software usually master , and this is what should get released to production. In order to protect this golden standard from as many bugs as possible, it shouldn't be possible to directly write anything on it.
For this reason, every development should start by creating a dedicated branch from master. To keep things organized, it is possible to adopt naming schemes for branches: popular ones uses prefixes like develop , feature , release , hotfix , etc.
Continuous Integration: Automating Development Processes and Best Practices
Proper development can now start, whether it's a full-fledged feature development spanning one or more sprints or a quick production bugfix. Depending on one's context, tests can be written before this is: Test-Driven Design or after the writing of the code. Coverage of code by tests is dependent on one's context too: for software that is responsible for human lives, such as plane navigation or assisted surgery, every line of code needs to be checked or even double- or triple-checked.
In other cases, the return over investment of tests may be less important. Remember that changes were not made directly on master, but on a dedicated branch.
Continuous Integration and Feature Branching
Once the development is finished, it's time to ask team members if those changes can be merged into the master branch. Once the PR has been opened, the branch can be automatically built using the project's build tool, to ensure the modifications we made do not break our master branch. Frequently, other steps will also take place. One such step is an automated review of the committed code: the review scope might be around security, code quality, documentation standards, etc.
In the realm of code quality, it would be hard not to mention SonarQube , one of the leading OpenSource platforms in this area. SonarQube integrates with major CI tools to execute configured checks on one's codebase.
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This is what Continuous Inspection is all about:. SonarQube provides the capability to not only show health of an application but also to highlight issues newly introduced. With a Quality Gate in place, you can fix the leak and therefore improve code quality systematically. The automated build starts automatically once the PR is opened, using one of the available CI tools that will go through all build steps: compilation, testing, packaging, etc. If one or more of the automated build steps triggers a failure, we say the build is broken. In most CI tools, a broken build is displayed in red, while a passing build is shown in green.
Hence, you may hear people referring to a passing build as a "green build".
If the build is broken, whatever the reason, it's up to the developer at the origin of the PR to fix it. At this stage, the build should be passing. Automation is great, and developers wouldn't be able to reach what they do today without it. However, it's not without its limits. While a tool such as SonarQube can detect a simple bug pattern e. For this reason, the last step before a code change can be merged into master is a manual code review by fellow team members this is what the PR was for!
There are probably as many ways to do a code review as there are developers! Suffice to say you'll probably need to find a base one, such as the excellent What to Look for in a Code Review and adapt it to your own needs. In general, this signals either a release or a production hot-fix. To make sure everything is fine, the CI tool should replay the build again, this time on the master branch with the merged changes.
There are additional actions performed, though. First, the VCS needs to tag the version accordingly, so that it's marked as such. Naming conventions for tagging and versioning also exists, as for branches, but frequently with a more creative twist: oftentimes projects choose topics like e. But while "Placid Pangolin" Ubuntu or "Oreo" Android are great marketing names worth remembering, software developers should use a standard versioning scheme using figures in parallel.
It's more than advised to follow the rules of semantic versioning regarding the major, minor and bugfix versions. More info can be found on semver. Second, the build resulting artifact needs to be stored in the Artifacts Repository Manager.
What Are Continuous Delivery and Continuous Deployment?
This way, if something unexpected happens, and a rollback needs to be performed, the previous working version is available without the need to build from sources again. With Continuous Integration ever more widely used, there's a maturing ecosystem of tools to get started.
- What Is Continuous Integration?;
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Jenkins is one of the oldest open source projects in the Continuous Integration space and still one of the most widely used. Such a long legacy has upsides and downsides. The core architecture has been battle-tested over the years in production environments ranging from small-scale deployments to some of the largest companies in the world , and there is a vibrant online community of Jenkins users to help with solutions for problems you may encounter.
However, the large legacy code base and backward compatibility requirements mean that it's internal abstractions are often dated - and these frequently leak through to users in different scenarios. Furthermore, while Jenkins has an extensive plug-in ecosystem that provides many modern features, these plugins are usually community developed and can vary in quality and reliability. In recent years Jenkins has gained a new language for describing Continuous Integration workflows known as pipelines. These allow developers to declare and describe the build and deployment process.
Jenkins also allows you to create modules that you can reuse across different projects to standardize and streamline common processes. In short, Jenkins has a long history of development and use, a large and active community, and is highly customizable. Perhaps it's for these reasons that you could say, "nobody ever got fired for choosing Jenkins.
Travis CI is nearly as venerable as Jenkins, and while many of its components are open source, it's not possible to self-host without an enterprise account. However, running Travis with any open source projects is free. Every task you want Travis to run is contained within a.
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