University Library. Penrith Campus Library. None of your libraries hold this item. Found at these bookshops Searching - please wait We were unable to find this edition in any bookshop we are able to search. These online bookshops told us they have this item:.
Tags What are tags? Add a tag. Public Private login e. Add a tag Cancel Be the first to add a tag for this edition. Lists What are lists? Login to add to list. Be the first to add this to a list. Comments and reviews What are comments? Add a comment. Australian National University. La Trobe University. Queensland University of Technology. The University of Melbourne.
The University of Queensland. University of Adelaide. University of Technology Sydney.
Of course, the details of the causality—in particular, the possible links between black criminality and racism suffered in the past—are not at all understood. But what should be understood is that this disparity is not necessarily evidence for contemporary racism. Incarceration rate is a clear case where a racial disparity can be traced to a non-racial cause. One key example, with ongoing intergenerational effects, is the historic Social Security Act of , which created an important system of employment-based old-age insurance and unemployment compensation.
The Act also, however, deliberately excluded agricultural workers and domestic servants—occupations largely held by black men and women. But in both these cases the aim is to secure votes not exclude black people because they are black. If the African-American population changed its preferences from Democrat to Republican, no doubt gerrymandering practices would adapt accordingly.
The point is that these practices are not aimed at black people because they are black, but because of the way they vote. Gerrymandering is sleazy, but it is not racist—systemic or otherwise. Another example that seems clearly racist is hiring by private companies. Perhaps she is racist; but in any case, this is individual not systemic racism. This kind of muddle infuses the Lancet article and many others like it. But the fact remains that there are certainly lingering effects of past racism. How should they be understood? Labeling them as systemic racism is not helpful, because it suggests a single cause for what are in fact multiple interacting causes, most of them non-racial.
One solution has been to invoke systems theory as a way to model a complex situation. Systems theory cannot be accused of excessive precision. An action on one part will have effects on many others. Systems thinking has been successfully applied to collective phenomena such as flocking in birds, schooling in fish and the building of termite mounds, explaining coordinated behavior by leaderless groups in terms of simple rules followed by each individual group member.
In this case the emergent, coordinated behavior can be measured precisely, and hypothetical rules can be rigorously tested by computer simulation. But systems theory has been invoked much more widely, in areas from political economy to social work. Neither hydrogen nor oxygen alone has or can produce wetness; wetness occurs only in a chemical system that includes both hydrogen and oxygen in the correct proportions.
But large effects from small causes, or even from large but mostly unrelated, non-racial, causes, are the exception rather than rule. There are two other problems with this approach. The first afflicts all of sociology. If these correlations are sufficiently compelling , perhaps causality can be inferred, but in fact they rarely are.
The second problem is that in the racism area there are almost no quantitative correlations at all. What is offered are not so much models as visual metaphors. No doubt other researchers have other diagrams. Yet it is used to justify the concept of systemic racism. Systemic racism is a poor concept. First, it is almost impossible to prove, because racism is discrimination without any reason other than race. To prove discrimination, all other possible reasons—reasons like differential ability, interests, criminality, etc.
Does the tech industry discriminate against women? Does the nursing profession discriminate against men? To show racism, which is differential treatment for no reason other than race, alternative explanations for disparities must be eliminated. But in practice not only are they not eliminated, efforts to explore these other causes are actively suppressed.
So, the second, and perhaps most important, problem with the charge of systemic discrimination is that it deflects attention from the proximal causes, endogenous as well as exogenous, of the racial disparities that led to its invention. Disparities—racial, ethnic, or gender-based—are not proof of anything. Disparities raise questions about their cause.
Absent further information, a racial disparity does not favor one answer over others. If only things were that simple! It is here forever, and its victims must be compensated in perpetuity. It has become the elusive and inexpugnable cause of all the ills of people of color. And it provides an endless supply of ammunition for those whose careers depend on the persistence of racism.
It has become a cause of racial division rather than part of the cure. It should be abandoned. John Staddon is a James B. Fulker, Robin Corley and John C. Psychological Science , Vol. Psychological Science, 25 9 The author was savagely criticized, so the publisher apparently declined to print any more. The book was re-published in by a company that has itself been attacked as racist, rendering the project tainted.
I have no knowledge or even opinion on whether there are or are not racial, gender or ethnic disparities in the distribution of intelligence — but it seems to me that all too many people are heavily invested in the issue. It would be great if intelligence were doled out independent of race, gender or ethnicity. My only thought though is — why would we expect nature to be that kind? Time and again……. True, but the USA and most other western cultures touts equal protection under the law and E Pluribus Unum, so it pays to remove systemic bias bias built into the system — the laws and call out personal biases.
Ask any pedagogical knowledgable person about this, and you will know. The downgrading attitude from low historically, cultural,in rank or statue or otherwise to high is accepted, the reverse not. In dramaturgy, this is also well known. Adults hit by their kids as long as toddlers , OK, but not the reverse.
I was kind of confused by this, too. Is it meant to be an example of problems with using statistical correlation in a very naive manner to determine heritability? Given the context, I think that is probably the intended meaning: high correlation between behavior of parent and child cannot naively be assumed to be due to biological causes. The blank slate idea undermined. I believe he is referring to the fact that children learn language.
Then those children that have parents with high test scores of verbal measures, also test well. But this is based on inference. To put it in Chomskyan terms, we innately possess a universal grammar that makes it possible to learn a spoken language. It does not determine the specific spoken language that one will acquire. So first thing one needs to do is distinguish between the specific language one speaks and the underlying ability universal grammar that makes the learning of that specific language possible. Next, one needs to be careful with the use of terms like innate, heritable, etc.
Heritability has a specific meaning that many people get wrong. It is not about the determinants of a trait in any one individual. It is about the variability in a trait across individuals. Look at it this way. Are the properties of a cake determined by its recipe genes or by the baker, ingredients, oven, etc. Hopefully you recognize that this is an ill-formed question. The cake is determined by both and trying to tease out the numerical contribution of either is a fools errand. But now consider cakes. Now we have a meaningful question that we can give a numerical answer to. But does that mean that the recipe had no influence on the cakes characteristics?
Systemic Racism: A Theory of Oppression | Community Development Journal | Oxford Academic
The initial question. To the best our knowledge, there are no genes for specific languages. The heritability of English as opposed to Japanese is therefore 0. Genetic differences are not responsible for the observed variation in the specific language that a person speaks. But what about universal grammar? Not so fast. In asking about the heritability of universal grammar you are asking about variability in universal grammar. So why do some people possess universal grammar and other people do not?
There could be genetic mutations, there could be brain damage, etc. So even universal grammar likely has a heritability close to 0. However, while there are no genes specifically for English, as opposed to Japanese, there are undoubtedly genes for universal grammar. So now rather than considering humans, we consider human infants and puppies. Both the infants and the puppies grow up in the same home, so they are exposed to the same spoken language.
Suppose both are born and come home to the same household the same day. Three years later the infants are speaking a language and the puppies are not. Why is that? The infants have the genes for universal grammar and the puppies do not. The most towering achievement that Quillette has done has been to make it OK and normal to have conversations like this.
These are important things that need to be said. While some good points are raised, the author spends more words on the impossibility of getting good data, as if to suggest that trying to tease the truth out of data is laughable. How about using data from outside of the USA? No one ever seems to question the data. The same patterns could be seen among Canadian First Nations populations that American investigators find among Black Americans.
My Canadian perspective gets me out of the American bubble enough to see how poorly non-whites are treated in your country.
We do the same to our First Nations peoples and see the exact same increase in violence and breakdown of the family in their communities that are mentioned in discussions of race in America. It seems more likely to me that Americans are unable to understand the echos of the incredible fuck up of slavery and racist policies in place even in to the s than the idea that these differences could be genetic.
What if it takes generations of relatively stress-free child rearing to overcome the hundreds of years of genetic echos of slavery? Understanding the disparities between black and white people in the US is important, and I feel that this article is more concerned with that it gives me a headache to think of how easily it discredits the rest of the Quillette project. Edit: …and I feel that this article is more concerned with discrediting the idea that racism might still be with us that it gives me a headache to think of how easily it discredits the rest of the Quillette project. To say that a race can correlate with IQ is not racism.
These are just scientific hypotheses.
Free Thought Lives
When scientists discovered that children prefer to play with children of the same color, should we blame them for racism? A society where everyone is Einstein would instantly collapse. I personally believe that the current problems of the African-American community are more related to slavery — slavery leaves a deep imprint on any social group, forming an ethic of irresponsibility and hopelessness, and IQ is an infinitesimal cause. Society is not a car, where we can fix a flat tire with a repair kit. Ian, I feel you did not explain how being canadian gives you a better perspective on this issue.
We too have a complicated and constantly mis-represented history with Native Americans and their modern sociologic issues, so I am unsure how that lends you any unique insight. I also believe that you have missed the entire point of this article. This article is a refuttation of the emerging consensus ringing in academics ears that systemic racism is the hierarchical structure ruling our entire nation, while, in-fact, there is not evidence to support it. That does not mean that there is not systemic racism as the author pointed out.
That just means the evidence is not at all what many pretend it to be, so the realm for debate should be open on both the complicated causes for the disparity and what can be done to correct them. Canada appears to be a bit of a lost cause on this issue my unique american perspective for you , so that is likely why this article is U. Its written by an American trying to turn the tide on the utter destruction of honest social science in several fields. Genetic evolution does not occur that fast… If there are any genetic differences they would have existed long before the Europeans came to the Americas.
The first point the author made was that even if there are systemic disadvantages against african-americans, many of the policies are not necessarily racist when going by the common definition of racism. That is not to diminish the impact these policies may have had, but merely to illustrate that the policies were not enacted due to racism per se. This is mostly a game of semantics, but is interesting nonetheless.
In order for one of the previous two explanations to be unequivocally true, we would have to completely disprove the other. Which, as the author points out, will be rather difficult. The following read from Karl Popper expresses the same sentiment, but is aimed at grand narratives from the sociology and psychology fields. Although, aside from the far left who believes the only differences are due to racism, or the far right who would like to believe the only differences are genetic, it seems quite plausible that in fact — as most reasonable people do — it is a combination of both factors.
I guess the next question that arises is to what extent do each of these explanations account for disparate societal outcomes? So, I suppose, the moral of the story is: we should all show some more epistemic humility. Please name one scholar on the far right who claims that racial disparities are entirely due to genetic differences. Jensen never said that, Murray never said that, Steve Sailer never said that. I believe it is a lie.
Recall the treatment that Charles Murray got at Middlebury. I doubt if it would take that long. Now they may be a subset of those with the get up and go to get out of the still arguably bad cultures of their home nations, but even so it proves culture is not genetically inherited. See Colin Powell and Malcolm Gladwell. The disparities between US blacks and whites as opposed to foreign born or descended blacks versus whites is more easily explained by intentional refusal by the ghetto subculture and black leaders to merge with the dominant culture of the country.
Like you said, the ones who immigrate to America are likely already better off they had the financial wherewithal, intelligence and know-how, that enabled them to immigrate. While I largely agree with what you are saying, this not the sole explanation nor can it ever definitively be proved so. Let me add two of my cents: IQ is not the reason for the success of any nation, community, group, etc. Look at all post-communist countries, they all suffer from the same diseases. Poverty is the only product that Africa can export now in unlimited quantities.
Should we blame the IQ? I have more evidence to confirm your hypothesis that this issue is one of culture and not skin color. Ghanian-Americans and Nigerian-Americans have higher average salaries than Americans. They also have higher average salaries than Dutch-Americans and French-Americans their white skinned immigrant counterparts.
This suggests that systemic racism does not exist in the USA today. That skin color has no bearing on your success, and that cultural upbringing is what really matters. Which, actually, is mind-numbingly obvious right from the start.
How Real Is Systemic Racism Today?
If African-Americans want to succeed they simply have to behave like all the other black people who come to this country and succeed. But nobody can do that for them. And no amount of free-bees from Democrats will do it either. It is doubtful that, along any given trait, the distributions of the Ghanaians and Nigerians that migrate to the US are, as a group, identical in all respects to those of their former countrymen.
It could be, for example, that those with the opportunity to migrate are those with more resources, who may also be more intelligent. Speak for yourself, not for 35 million other Canadians. I have done nothing to a FN person that I need to atone for. Every minority group has suffered. But successful individuals from those groups are constantly trying to raise the bar for the rest.
They say outright that the key to success is personal responsibility. In terms of black Americans, you need to read or watch Thomas Sowell, Larry Elder, and others like them. Please speak to some successful FN individuals in Canada who have developed beyond FN groupthink and victimhood I have known people in Alberta and in NWT and come back with a victim-free, three-dimensional, human account. America it seems will never leave slavery in the rear view. Some credit for progress should be acknowledged. The point of the article was to tease out the difference between racism and systemic racism.
There is simply no way any official policy at any level of government would discriminate based on dark skin. It seems more likely to me that Americans are unable to understand the echos of the incredible fuck up of slavery and racist policies in place even in to the s.. In the s, black families were more intact than they are today.
Good intentions, such as increased welfare, do not always have good results. I appreciate your views but why in the USA does the Left do very little to improve education in the cities and safe communities so those people can thrive to their highest abilities. Ian, I appreciate your views but why in the USA does the Left do very little to improve education in the cities and safe communities so those people can thrive to their highest abilities.
Frankly your bias is apparent throughout your comment. You accuse the author of being an apologist for racists. This is the same tired rhetoric that we see from far-left activists and a large part of those involved in the academy today. When Moynihan wrote his famous report about black family breakdown decades ago, most black children were growing up with two married parents.
Now the statistics have reversed, with most black children lacking two married parents. No one can say that racism is worse today. Having had a relative who worked in the penal system, I recall his observation that most inmates grew up fatherless. Take it from there. We do not see such abysmal statistics with Caribbean immigrants, whose ancestors also came from slavery. Statistics show that children from one parent families do much poorer in life skills and experiences in over 50 different categories.
This is why they are faithless to reason and logic; reason and logic are only useful to them when it can help them defeat their enemies. They use a tactic, then cast it aside and use a contradictory tactic whenever it suits their purpose — and the purpose is always power. They see life as nothing but a power struggle under a polite smokescreen of rationality, unchangeably oppressor-versus-oppressed, and so they approach life in that manner. Gauge every single thing these people do as a power play, designed to shore up their own defenses or attack their ideological opponents, and their irrational and hypocritical behavior begins to make much more sense.
It is religion thinking, unbound by any moral code. We can make all the well-crafted arguments in the world, but it will make no difference to Party members. They are power hungry. Once they have it, they will use it and abuse it.
Pick a safe country to flee to. Europe is out of the question, Canada is circling the drain, and the US is clearly heavily infiltrated. Australia seems only a couple decades behind the rest. I do not deny that race may correlate with IQ. They all were whites, BTW. I doubt if you gave his case examples that they would do very well on IQ tests either. You can compare whites in the south to whites in the north of the USA before the migration after slavery ended.
A study of leading American figures in the arts and sciences in the first half of the nineteenth century found most clustered in the Northeast, while vast regions of the South—Virginia alone excepted—were without a single one. The kinds of statistical disparities found between Southern whites and Northern whites in the past are today often taken as evidence or proof of racial discrimination when such disparities are found between the black and white populations of the country as a whole, while others have taken such disparities as signs of genetic deficiencies.
Yet clearly neither racial discrimination nor racial inferiority can explain similar differences between whites in the North and the South in earlier centuries. Footnote H. Arthur R. White skin emanates ORs Oppression Rays that cause minorities harm. The only solution is to grind non-Party whites down. They must have voting rights removed and be allowed only one child. Perhaps a period of servitude would also suffice. People have long acknowledged the power of witches to sicken cattle and crops with evil hexes, and even kill or maim people with the evil eye.
While it is true that blaming one groups failings on another group, if unjustified, is what is known as racially motivated scapegoating and one of the primary motivators of genocide, which I am told anti-racists regard as bad, at least when white people engage in it. There is a lot of yammering about systematic racism, but no discussion of single-motherhood which correlates to a host of social pathologies. In other words, racial scapegoating takes up all the oxygen, so there is no time to consider the way that the marketing and normalizing of social deviance by the cultural industry to children has consistently undermined our ability to make progress in closing racial disparities, as well as contributing to the slide of the American working and middle classes into opioid dependency and suicide.
Feagin's primary focus is the subjugation of African Americans from the slavery era to the present. Feagin on Amazon. FREE shipping on qualifying offers. In this book, Feagin develops a theory of systemic racism to interpret the highly racialized character and development of this society. Exploring the distinctive social worlds that have been created by racial oppression over nearly four centuries and what this has meant for the people systemic racism theory oppression systemic racism a theory of oppression Download Book Systemic Racism A Theory Of Oppression in PDF format. How can the answer be improved?